Why Engines Don’t Melt

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Radiative cooling is a cooling method employed in certain rocket engines, like SpaceX’s vacuum Merlin and Rocket Lab’s vacuum Rutherford engines. As the name suggests, this method gets rid of heat through radiation, a form of heat transfer that does not require matter. Through using nozzle extensions made of alloys like niobium, radiative cooling dissipates the heat into space. While the nozzle extensions can handle high heat, they are somewhat fragile, making them impractical to use as a primary rocket engine cooling method. Read full article here

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Science

An Eerie Poisonous Fog

If you’re visiting a farm, keep an eye out for an ominous-looking bronze fog. Nitrogen tetroxide, a red-orange gas, is made by certain bacteria during fermentation when oxygen is lacking in the crop. The lack of oxygen causes the bacteria to use the nitrate within the crops, which then produces nitrogen tetroxide. Inhalation of the gas is known to cause permanent lung damage or kill people and livestock. To prevent this, farmers have started performing nitrate tests after four weeks of fermentation. Read full article here

Psychology

Happiness Is Two Scales

It’s put forth that happiness and unhappiness should be viewed as two different ‘scales’, not either end of one scale. For instance, if you’re not satisfied with your life, try to identify the root problem: do you not have enough happiness, or are you just unhappy? Depending on your answer to the question, the solutions may differ. Read full article here

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