Torn-Out Pages: Pope Joan and the Persistence of Myth-Making

Share This Post

Pope Joan was a woman alleged to have ascended to papacy by dressing up as a man, with her gender revealed only after she died in childbirth during a procession. However, she’s most definitely a myth. Stefan Bauer debunks the “smoking guns” provided by Pietro Ratto that allegedly prove how the Church erased Joan from history. For example, Ratto points to inconsistent papal names as proof of her existence, which Bauer says is caused by the multitude of Pope Johns in history and too few contemporary sources. Read full article here

More To Explore


An Eerie Poisonous Fog

If you’re visiting a farm, keep an eye out for an ominous-looking bronze fog. Nitrogen tetroxide, a red-orange gas, is made by certain bacteria during fermentation when oxygen is lacking in the crop. The lack of oxygen causes the bacteria to use the nitrate within the crops, which then produces nitrogen tetroxide. Inhalation of the gas is known to cause permanent lung damage or kill people and livestock. To prevent this, farmers have started performing nitrate tests after four weeks of fermentation. Read full article here


Happiness Is Two Scales

It’s put forth that happiness and unhappiness should be viewed as two different ‘scales’, not either end of one scale. For instance, if you’re not satisfied with your life, try to identify the root problem: do you not have enough happiness, or are you just unhappy? Depending on your answer to the question, the solutions may differ. Read full article here

Do You want to embrace intellectual freedom and join our premium users?


The occasional email full of conversation-worthy content