A future Mars civilization has the potential to be built with the blood, sweat, and tears of astronauts — literally. A study has found that mixing proteins from blood plasma, urea from urine and human sweat with Martian soil makes a material stronger than the concrete we use on Earth. They estimate that a six-person crew could create almost 500 kg of the material (dubbed “AstroCrete”) in two years, with production scaling up whenever new crew members are added to the mission.
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If you’re visiting a farm, keep an eye out for an ominous-looking bronze fog. Nitrogen tetroxide, a red-orange gas, is made by certain bacteria during fermentation when oxygen is lacking in the crop. The lack of oxygen causes the bacteria to use the nitrate within the crops, which then produces nitrogen tetroxide. Inhalation of the gas is known to cause permanent lung damage or kill people and livestock. To prevent this, farmers have started performing nitrate tests after four weeks of fermentation. Read full article here